KiwiEnzyme© KIWIFRUIT EXTRACT (Actinidin)
The active ingredient in KiwiEnzyme© Kiwifruit Extract Powder is the protease Actinidin. The pH optimum and activity / temperature profile of Actinidin are keys to the products effectiveness.
For applications such as meat tenderizing:
Activity is optimal at physiological pH (6.0 – 6.5) Temperature is optimal at 50°C:
- enables tenderizing at low holding temperatures
- avoids over tenderizing at higher (cooking) temperatures
These properties offer a significant advantage over competing proteases such as those derived from bacterial sources and other plant proteases such as Papain. Many of these products are terminated at high temperatures which can result in over tenderizing.
By utilising a combination of holding temperature and time interval the tenderizing process can be applied to a range of meat portions:
For large meat portions (e.g. corned beef, beef roast, whole poultry carcass) the injected enzyme marinade performs its tenderizing effect during the cooking process over 1 to 2 hours, as the temperature rises from chilled (<5°) to the final cook temperature (>70°C) at which point the Actinidin has been terminated.
For small portions (e.g. beef steaks, chicken thighs) the cook phase is too short to allow the tenderizing process to operate. A tempering stage is required during which the portion is either held at ambient temperature for several hours, or undergoes a low temperature pre-cook (< 50°C), to activate the tenderizing process.
Actinidin is stable to freezing. Injected meat portions may be stored frozen for extended periods prior to cooking. The tenderizing action commences as the portion thaws.